Female infertility

Reproductive malfunctions caused by inability of a woman to conceive and carry a baby are commonly known as female infertility.

Female infertility – causes

Disturbance of ovulation is one of the reasons. If the process is upset in a female body, an oocyte cannot mature properly and escape the ovary to fuse with a spermatozoon. Naturally, no onset of pregnancy would be possible under such conditions.

Commissural process

Apart from the uterus, commissures displace ovaries and Fallopian tubes. Such a process disturbs normal anatomic relationship between inner organs. This results in an abnormal interaction between Fallopian tubes and ovaries. An oocyte must enter a Fallopian tube as a result of motion of pili, i.e. special fibers, which direct an oocyte from the ovary to the tube. Fallopian tubes perform the function of carriage of spermatozoa to an oocyte and, afterwards, carriage of a fertilized oocyte to the uterus. At the time of the commissural process the connective tissue film prevents an egg from entering the tube. Commissures may close, either partially or in full, the tube clearance, cause the Fallopian tube to get squeezed from the outside, result in pathological curvatures of tubes, pilus structure disorders.


Endometriosis causes generation of commissural processes in the small pelvis cavity. The tissue having its structure similar to the endometrium (uterine mucous membrane) expands beyond the limits of endometrium normal location area. Ovary-generated hormones promote cyclic changes in endometriosis centers. As a result, blood causes irritation of the peritoneum, which, in turn, leads to generation of commissures. This disturbs functions of the Fallopian tubes, maturation of follicles and ovulation processes.

Uterus pathology

Female infertility of this form affects the process of fertilized egg implantation into the uterine cavity. Commissures, myomatosis , that is a benign tumor generated from the uterine muscle tissues, inflammatory processes in small pelvis organs are the causes of different uterine pathologies.

Immunological infertility and incompatibility

Infertility of this form involves negative responses of a female body to male semen. A conflict arises between genes of spouses where man’s sperm entering the uterus is treated as a foreign body.

Endocrine disorders

Female infertility can be caused by a range of hormonal disorders resulting in irregular ovulations or complete absence thereof. Those are disorders of functions of the thyroid gland, sexual glands, hypothalamic-pituitary regulation.

Female infertility – forms

Female infertility can be conventionally divided into primary and secondary infertility.

Primary infertility can be due to the following reasons:
  • infantilism – underdevelopment of female sexual organs, as well as all varieties of their development abnormalities, including attendant hormonal disorders;
  • improper uterus position creating obstacles for conception;
  • menstrual cycle disturbance, functional insufficiency of sexual glands.
Secondary infertility can be due to the following reasons:
  • inflammatory diseases of Fallopian tubes, ovaries (salpingo-oophoritis), uterine neck (erosion, endocervicitis), vagina (vaginitis, vaginosis);
  • gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, clamidiosis, micoplasmosis, herpes-virus, cytomegalovirus, as well as many other infections;
  • complications, followinginducedabortions;
  • differenttumorsofsexualorgans, endometriosis;
  • perineumtraumas, post-operationcomplications;
  • endocrinesystemdysfunctions;
  • consumptivediseasesandchronicintoxications;
  • malnutrition.

Female infertility – symptoms

A family couple is recognized infertile, if a woman is incapable of getting pregnant during one year of regular sexual life, without the use of contraception means and methods of every sort and kind.