Male infertility

Infertility used to be mainly treated as a female disease. If a couple is childless, fault always lies with a woman. However, doctors have looked at this problem at a different angle. Today, if a family couple is incapable of conceiving a child, the male factor is not ruled out.

It is well known that the body of a man generates spermatozoa, without which the fertilization process may not be possible. A spermatozoon consists of a tail, neck and head. All genetic information conveyed by a man to his would-be child is contained in the spermatozoon head. An egg is reached with the help of the tail.

Spermatozoa are generated in testicle spiral tubules covered with spermatogenetic epithelium. Further the spiral tubules are transformed into straight tubules. To attain full maturity and become fit for fertilization, a spermatozoon must struggle through all those tubules. When in testicle adnexa, spermatozoa pass through the full maturation process and become ready for conception. Should, in this case, the reproductive disorder process be observed in the male body, generation of spermatozoa would also be disturbed. Testicles cannot generate a sufficient number of spermatozoa necessary for fertilization purposes. Their mobility is affected. Otherwise, most spermatozoa suffer structural defects.

Male infertility forms

One of the forms is secretory. It leads to disorders in the spermatozoon generation process. This infertility form is caused by such diseases as varicose dilatation of testicle veins, testicle edema, cryptorchidism, mumps, irradiation or exposure to rays, high temperature, syphilis, tuberculosis, typhus, hormonal disorders, prolonged consumption of anticancer, antiepileptic drugs, some antibiotics, steroid hormones and antiandrogens.

Under condition of testicle vein dilatation, or varicocele, testicle veins get excessively dilated and become incapable of providing for adequate blood outflow from testicles. As a result, blood gets congested, thus upsetting blood circulation in tissues of testicles and oppressing their functions. In most cases, varicocele is left-side. However, blood circulation in the other, healthy testicle is also disturbed soon afterwards. Ultimately, the testicles affect materially the spermatozoon generation process.

Accumulation of a considerable quantity of testicle-compressing fluid is known as testicle edema. If this disease is not treated timely, it can bring about disorders in testicle tissue blood circulation and, finally, produce unfavorable results. Similar results can also be produced by inguinal hernia.

Mumps viruses commonly affect different body glands. At an early stage of the disease, salivary glands become inflamed. The face of the diseased takes round form. Sexual glands get also involved in the process, which is especially true in respect of boys. If inflammation of testicles (orchitis) was heavy enough, while proper treatment was not applied, further material reproductive dysfunction can be possible.

Various outside factors may cause damages to the spermatogenetic epithelium. Any long-time penetrating radiation effects may give rise to radiation diseases, a great variety of bodily disorders and, besides, materially affect the spermatogenetic epithelium of testicles, which, in turn, would result in a considerable reduction of spermatozoa. Highly intensive or long-acting electromagnetic oscillation can produce similar results.

Frequent high temperature takes oppressive action on the testicle reproductive function. This impact can be critical both for welders and stokers, as well as for all those who like to take saunas or hot baths. It is advisable that any such procedures be ended with cold shower. At least, let your body cool down before you get dressed if the issue of your future parenthood is important for you. Tight underwear pressing testicles against the body can also upset their thermal regulation.

Different venereal, infection, hormonal diseases, prolonged consumption of steroids, alcohol, drugs affect both the quantity and quality of spermatozoa.

Let us consider the obstructive male infertility. This infertility form makes it impossible for spermatozoa to move along sperm ducts. If passing ability disorder is single-sided, the quantity of spermatozoa contained in sperm is reduced, while in the event of double-sided disorder, no spermatozoa are available at all.

In most cases the above disease progresses as a result of epididymis inflammation that was sustained in the past. The epididymis ducts are stuck together or blocked. As a result of it, not a single testicle spermatozoon can enter seminal vesicles. A similar result may also be produced by traumas in testicles or the inguinal region, especially those that were left unexamined and treated by a doctor. It is often the case where the obstruction of seminal ducts occurs as a result of their accidental damage in the course of surgery of small pelvis organs – a urinary bladder, renal ducts, rectum, etc.

Situations may arise where no diseases related to reproductive dysfunctions are diagnosed as a result of medical examination of infertile family couples. Moreover, both husband and wife may have children who were born in the course of previous marriages. The most common cause of infertility in such cases is tissue incompatibility. A female body generates substances causing allergic responses to male spermatozoa. Regretfully, treatment of infertility of this form presents today a serious problem for andrologists and gynecologists all over the world who are incapable of attaining successful results of treatment, using conventional means, in each individual case.

Male infertility – psychological aspects

Even if a man was aware of his diseases and their consequences, the news of infertility would be, in most cases, complete surprise to him. More often than not, men experience much greater shock of such news than a woman. As concerns strong-sex representatives, the concept of manhood is practically identical to that of their sexual function. Inability to have children can sometimes have a fatal impact on the morbid male self-esteem.